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The Most Widespread Watch Terminology




A watch that displays time indications using means of hands in twelve-hour format considers using hands to operate and show the time; it’s important not to mix it with a digital display. Typically it’s indicated according to its continuous motion of rotating pointers on the watch that point to numbers and array on a circular dial. Moreover, the hour’s hands movement is similar to a specific path when the Sun goes across the sky.



Automatic watch operates according to the same principles as mechanical wind watch, though with special addition of a weighted pendulum that is known as “Rotor”. This mechanical movement is wounded automatically. The rotor is attached to the side of the movement, so afterwards when a watch is in motion the rotor spins around and automatically winds a watch. If an automatic watch has stopped or its power reserve is ending, it should be manually wound more than 30 times.


Base Metal


Refers to any non-precious metal, for example, steel, brass, etc. They are more abundant in nature and that’s why far cheaper than precious metals.




A device that consists of one or more cells. Usually the case of the battery can be noticed on the case back. The volt in such quartz analogue watch is 1.5V. If it’s a digital watch, it will be equal 3.0 V.



It reminds of a ring on the top side of the case and is located around the crystal, only a few are situated beneath it. Its purpose is to measure time increments. Also it can be classified as uni-direction turning bezels or bi-directional ones. So, it helps to control and start timing an event at any given time by aligning at the beginning point. It may be snapped or screwed on to the middle. The bezel can be rotated as well.




A specific kind of metal which plating finishes white and yellow juxtaposes, mostly located very close on the bracelet.




Each watch bracelet is a flexible metal band or metal strap attached to the case. Typically it’s made up of links that are separated and can be removed in order to adjust the length of the bracelet. Sometimes it’s called integral if there is no apparent discontinuity and the look of an attachment profile is similar to the first link.


Bracelet Sets

Special designs for matching watches and bracelets.



Peculiar strap fastening that consists of a rim and a tongue, with one end attached to it and the other held by a catch in a secure but adjustable manner. A basic buckle frame comes in a variety of shapes and sizes dependent on the intended use and peculiar fashion. As well as various material it’s popular among watch manufacturers.




Refers to a unit of purity of gold alloys. Pure gold equals 24 carat, 18 carat stands for alloy of which 75% is gold, 14 carat is the same alloy, but with less 58% of gold, and 37,5% of gold alloy equals to 9 carat. Sometimes it’s called karat. The carat is divisible into one hundred points of two milligrams each.



A specific metal housing made up of three elements: middle, a bezel and a back. Mainly it’s made of stainless steel, but even sometimes gold, silver and platinum can be used, though it makes the price increase. Also it is fixed with a strap.


Case Back


A cover that protects and cares about the movement of the watch. This is the place where all necessary and required information can be found. Normally it snaps back to a place, and if it’s a waterproof model, it will make sure that water can’t permeate the seal. Mostly, case backs are of stainless steel, except those made of precious metal.



This term means a watch that includes a stop function which is built-in, like a timer that can be controlled according to a time event. So, it measures and screens time. It is generally driven with the movement of the watch, and two buttons on the edge of the case operate it, so a large center with sub-dials for elapsed minutes and hours is noticed. Therefore, it may perform many various functions for certain time intervals via independent hands that may be stopped when needed.



It refers to a popular high-precision watch that has passed official Swiss testing laboratory and stands for standards procedure that involves measuring the performance of the movement at three different temperatures in five different positions for fifteen consecutive days. Very few brands can be able to pass certifying Quartz movements. So, if you have a Swiss watch with the label of a chronometer, you can be sure that this mechanical movement is of the highest quality. So, it means a definite timepiece or timing device with a special built-in mechanism for ensuring and adjusting its accuracy, for determining longitude at sea or for any purpose where very exact measurement of time is required.




It is said to be a grooved button on the outside of the case for setting the hands on a watch, day and date, where applicable. It is linked to the movement through the winding stem passing through a hole in the case. In water resistant models crowns usually screw down. This button on the end of the spindle is used for adjusting the time and date on an analogue watch. Generally the winding is done with the crown flush against the watch; pulled once it adjusts everything. The crown is round and ridged to provide grip.



The fastening mechanism for bracelet watches is called a clasp. There exist many various types, like Deployment Buckle, Fold-Over Buckle, Hook Lock, Jeweler’s Clasp, Sliding Clasp or Twist Lock. They come in many different styles and configurations. It is usually associated with a metal bracelet and refers to that part of the watch that either opens or separates allowing the watch to fit around the hand.


Dial or Face

It is considered to be a watch face or a plate of metal or other types of material. There are lots of different shapes, materials and decorations. Therefore, time and its further functions are shown there using markers, discs or through windows. Usually it’s made of brass, sometimes silver or gold. It’s very important that the face of the watch possesses an expression of its innermost nature, displays its functions and gives it unique identity. Of course, the layout of the mechanisms, wheels and complications and others dictate the dial’s appearance and special look, in particular this position of hands, sub-dials, apertures and other indications that compose it.


Dolphin Standard


A rotary watch which is marked the same on the case back offers an exclusive waterproof specification to swim and go in for water sport all day with it. As a result of high standards you can use it for showering, yachting, diving, and all other water sports. It’s a brand new standard from Rotary and a revolutionary concept meaning you can wear your watch with the confidence that the water won’t enter it, except of deep sea diving.


Duo Time or Travelcentric

This watch is famous for having two movements. While you are traveling it keeps time in different time zones, which is very useful for travelers.




Authorized stamps that are made on gold or silver watches. It has recently become one of the oldest and one of the most useful forms of consumer protection.



It's an indicator for the analogue pointing devices that circles around the dial indicating time measures or other special features of a watch. They may be found in different shapes and take part in the aesthetic result of a whole watch. The main styles are Alpha Hands, Sword Hands, Breguet Hands, Baton Hands, Dauphine Hands, Luminous Hands and Skeleton Hands. A variously shaped indicator made of a thin piece of lightweight metal moves round a dial with or without graduations. It has been widespread used since the 18th century.




Special leather loops or a leather watch strap that is supposed to keep the end of that strap in places where it can be fastened.



Peculiar arms of the watch case hold the bracelet and are available in various designs and styles for consumers. It’s got a look of double extension and it helps the bracelet to be attached with removable spring bars.



Mechanical watch is powered by a mainspring in housing. The mainspring is wounded by hand, eventually unwinds very slowly and can transmit power to a system of interconnecting gearwheels that we call the gear train. This in turn is connected to the escapement mechanism that consists of a wheel and a pallet fork in order to transmit impulses to the balance wheel. There is a further train that moves the hands of the watch. So, it is a watch that measures the passage of time as opposed to modern quartz watches that function electronically. They are now worn more for their unique aesthetic features and attributes, like a piece of jewelry or a statement of one person’s style, than just timekeeping. As they are considered to be more modern, they are more expensive.


Mineral Glass


Watch crystal that is made essentially from a form of glass. It is even more scratch-resistant to various situations than acrylic; mineral crystal will, however, scratch and it’s extremely hard to polish it afterwards. It has got superb reflective properties, strength and clarity and, therefore, is reasonably priced.



The inner mechanism makes the watch keep time, display and perform all functions. Movements can be divided into quartz and mechanical groups, and the latter is available with mechanical or automatic winding devices. In other words, it refers to assembled organs and mechanisms of any watch, namely the winding and hand-setting mechanisms, the mainspring, the gear and the regulating organ (balance or spring).


Nickel Content


All watches are not 100% made of nickel, only one or two layers are used underneath gold or rhodium plate, as people are very allergic to it, copper does the job nickel used to do. Eventually, the content of nickel has been reduced since it became an allergic substance. Sometimes it’s referred to nickel silver that is a silver-white alloy of copper, nickel and zinc developed in 1820 in France.


Power Cell


Refers to another term for a battery that coverts stored chemical energy. Typically, it lasts for two to five years, but it depends on the type of a watch. The amount of energy is required for different functions. Watch power cells are usually silver-oxide or lithium.


PVD Plating


The abbreviation stands for Physical Vapor Deposition. It is an alternative solution to gold plating, and it offers superior robustness and durability of color and composition. The PVD process mainly ensures placing a watch in a high pressure sealed chamber in which gold manages to create a saturated atmosphere. So, stainless steel is completely penetrated by gold, and the PVD doesn’t possess discoloring thanks to total permeation of color throughout the metal.


Rotary Revelation


The Swiss made revelation watches for men and women in a brand new style. The case rotates to show different dials. There are two separate movements that allow displaying two time zones. It also offers a unique design with two different styles in only one watch.


Sapphire Glass


Specific crystal that is made of synthetic sapphire and possesses a transparent, shatter-resistant and scratch-resistant substance. Usually it’s made by crystalizing oxide at high temperatures. It also has hardness and goes second after the diamond.




As sapphirite glass means a toughened hard mineral glass and has an extra layer for double durability.


Swiss Made


When a watch is assembled, adjusted and subjected to official testing in laboratories in Switzerland, then it’s Swiss made. Moreover, at least half of its parts and movements are originally made in Switzerland. Well, the case and the bracelet must not be manufactured in this country. It’s of high importance to keep the watch’s labeling under control.


Sterling Silver


An alloy of silver that usually contains 92.5% of silver and mass of other metals, mostly copper that gives strength while preserving the ductility and beauty of precious metal.


Stainless Steel


This term shows a steel alloy with a minimum of 10% of chromium in its definite mass. Being dense and extremely durable, rust resistant metal does not require electroplating. Its combination may vary from two elements to many; according to it, its properties will be different. It is also used on the case back of watches and is made of other metals. Watchmaking uses various grades of steel, including low alloy steels, according to intended use of springs, screws, gears or case.



A band that holds your wrist can be found in all possible types of material. All Rotary watches are made of leather which patterns are printed to imitate animal skin. According to your preferences, there exist many various designs, styles and shapes of a watch strap. It definitely affects a whole look of a watch and possesses your personal style. That’s why it’s developed as a fashion accessory and can be found or ordered in many various styles and shapes.


Spring Bar

They are referred to as pins which are supposed to be used to attach watch bands or straps to watches. The sizes differ from 6 mm to 30 mm, but usually an average size is 1.8 mm. It’s made of metal and telescopic in design, and slots into the lugs of a watch case.


Screw Down Crown


It is an essential and number one feature for any watch when you are about to swim with it. Where the crown is threaded and stays close to the case of your watch by screwing it into a matching threaded tube, that is a part of its case. It’s got a gasket that is compressed and seals to opening when the crown is tightened, and eventually it causes and ensures water resistance. One more additional benefit is that the crown is more protected from accidental knocks, and prevents moisture entering the case of your watch.




Watches that are marked with this sign are supposed to be resistant to water, and you are able to swim all day long with it. Water resistance is usually noticed to be to a specific extent, and it varies for a definite watch. Each watch has got its own manual where you can find to what extent it is water resistant. With the watch aging its seals and gaskets begin to erode, so it’s much better to have your watch tested every year.



Time to Choose the Right Watches



The Rolex Submariner – watch standard for a real connoisseur


Watches with a set of basic functions, providing you with information about the hour, minute and second are readily available, and that’s why no more surprising, as well as other supplementary functions, such as current date, day of the week and alarm. The more models appear, the more developed they are: both wrist and pocket watches nowadays possess as many functions as possible. For example, many digital watches have a special striking mechanism to make you know the right time even without having a look at them. What is more, you can enjoy a great variety of complications, feeling completely armed in the modern chaotic world. Now your watch can not only function as a stopwatch timer, but display the lunar phase and include continual calendar, equation of time and minute repeater. New options help the wearer not to forget about some important events during the whole day – with these models you can be sure that nothing will be missed. Coordinated Universal Time, for example, with Pontos Grand Guichet GMT, is now available.


Watches can also be chronographs and chronometers, having either both options or only one: if with the first term everything is clear and models, possessing the function of stopwatch, are rather popular and widely used, the term chronometer should be specified. These types of watches tends to be more complicated, because it should have whether thermo-compensated or high quality mechanical movement – mechanism tested and certified to operate within a certain standard of accuracy by the COSC (Contrôle Officiel Suisse des Chronomètres).


The age of computerization creates the corresponding technologies as well as improves already existing ones, that’s why watches, as an indispensable part of everyday life, don’t escape the common lot. Different types of computerized wrist watches have been developed, but the usability gains the upper hand over the functionality and all long-term sales of these models were not successful. But, as opposed to their sophisticated colleagues, watches with calculators, barometers or compass became more popular. The more complicated the mechanism, the more awkward the interface; for that reason watches with digital cameras, video games, television and even computers have an unsteady reputation. But still some innovations and creative ideas, such as, for example, Braile watches with raised bumps around the face or even synthesized speech, are rather useful.


New models appear very often, possessing more and more functions, both necessary and supplementary. For this reason you can easily find an appropriate watch to gratify all your wishes and to be used for different purposes.


Your luxurious attribute

Wristwatches, along with their main function, have already become the accessory and part of your image, that’s why they vary not only in functions, but in design as well. The modern market provides customers with models to any taste: from inexpensive and unshowy to real masterpieces - it is up to you what to choose.


It’s not a secret that each situation requires appropriate style in clothes, and the watches you wear should be selected no less thoroughly than your suit. These can be either expensive watches with cabochon on the crown for men and gemstones on the face, bracelet or bezel for women, or sports watches. The fashion industry, spread to all accessories, can suggest a wide range of less expensive and trendy “costume” watches – they combine basic functions with bright design.

Companies that produce watches, in most cases, have their specialization, so, depending on aims you pursue, your company choice will differ. For example, Blancpain, Patek Philippe, and Jaeger-LeCoultre specialize in simple and complicated mechanical dress watches; companies such as Ball Watch Company, Omega SA, Breitling, TAG Heuer, Sinn, Panerai and Rolex produce rugged, reliable mechanical watches for sports and aviation use. Another group of companies, including Casio, Timex, and Seiko, specializes in watches as affordable timepieces or multifunctional computers.


So, nowadays watches tend to be not only an important timepiece, but also the accessory, that’s why, selecting the appropriate model, several aspects should be taken into account. Many companies, specializing in different watch types, are providing customers with a great variety of models, developing and improving both functional side and interface. Unfortunately, counterfeit watches, mimicking all those expensive brand-name, have congested the market, so you should be careful.



Omega Speedmaster – the choice of space explorers


Extreme and severe conditions of a space flight are a great challenge both for astronauts and equipment, that’s why the use of tested and certified watches is required. It can be hardly imagined what quality watches should possess to endure this ordeal. The first flight into space was a real scientific breakthrough for the mankind, and such a small detail, as watch Yuri Gagarin wore on April 12, 1961 can be treated as a small contribution to the process. His wristwatch was made at the First Moscow Factory and was called the Shturmanskie, and after that raging success these watches have got the trademark “POLJOT” (“flight” in Russian) and for a long time have been used in many space trips. Later, in the late 1970s, new Poljot 3133 with manual winding (43 hours) and 23 jewel movement was launched, gaining popularity among astronauts from Russia, Germany, Ukraine and France.


Of course, at the same period, different tests for durability took place in Europe and the USA. Many factors were taken into account, and, at last, NASA (space agency in the USA) chose the winner – that was Omega Speedmaster Professional. Since that time the pursuit for the right to be a watch representative in space began. For example, John Glech was the first who wore Swiss watch Heuer Stopwach in space while piloting the Friendship 7 on the first manned U.S. orbital mission. Then specially designed Breitling Navitimer Cosmonaute recaptured the initiative on May 24, 1962, the day when astronaut Scott Carpenter wore them in space in the Aurora 7 Mercury capsule. The fact is that different space agencies choose different watches to be worn in space: the Russian Federal Space Agency - Fortis, among China astronauts – Fiytal. Then special Spring Drive Spacewalk watch was created. There are other models qualified by NASA for space missions, and they are Timex Datalink, the Casio G-Shock DW-5600C and 5600E. So, Timex Ironman Triathlon 78401, for example, was worn by astronaut Nancy J. Currie during STS 88.


The history of watch usage by astronauts from different countries proves the high quality of these trademarks. Successfully undergoing all space flights ordeal, they gain the reputation of dependable timepieces.



Depth is not an obstacle


If scuba diving or saturation diving is your hobby, you should definitely know about the equipment you need. One of the necessary attributes is diving watch – specially crafted models to become water resistant. It’s wrong to use the term “waterproof” instead, because the process of testing is rather different. The standards, adopted by many countries, were established by the International Organization for Standardization.


In fact, water resistance itself is achieved by gaskets – they are forming a special watertight seal to help to keep water out. But the watches you can use while swimming differ from those designed for scuba diving. So, there are special standards given for each of these types. For diving watches it is ISO 6425 international standard. There are many requirements for the process of testing: one of the main is minimum 100 meter depth rating. All details here should be checked and taken into account, because sometimes your life and health depend on these factors. That’s why all eight requirements for the mechanism itself are of the highest importance. For example, the Seiko 7002-7020 Diver's 200 m on a 4-ring NATO style strap made of ballistic nylon is up to quality and, meeting all the requirements, makes your hobby safer and more pleasant.


So, as far as we see, these small attributes are very useful both in everyday life and in some special spheres and situations. It’s important to choose the appropriate combination of functionality, usability and interface to your taste and enjoy your choice every day.

Water Resistance Watch Terminology Accurancy of Watch

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